Illinois State Water Survey Library Services - Bibliographies - Groundwater

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Groundwater Bibliography


This bibliography was compiled by Illinois State Water Survey (ISWS) library staff, with contributions and input from the ISWS groundwater staff. It contains select materials for use by researchers, practitioners, instructors, and students in the field. A few nontechnical sources have been included for the general public. These bibliographies, handbooks, glossaries, atlases, encyclopedias, textbooks, monographs, conference proceedings, journals, articles, and websites focus on groundwater in the United States and in Illinois. Call numbers are given when available. Unless otherwise noted, these publications are in the collection of the ISWS Library. All citations are arranged alphabetically by title within each category. A complete list of ISWS journals is also available.

Journals & Newsletters
Selected Articles

Journals & Newsletters

Information on all journal holdings at ISWS is accessible from the
link under "Location" in the journal annotation, which also lists UIUC
library holdings.

Advances in Water Resources
"Designed to act as an international forum for the interchange of scientific and technical information ... [as related to] the more quantitative aspects of the water sciences." Concepts and techniques cover: numerical simulations, system analysis and mathematical programming, groundwater, hydrology, marine and coastal waters, water quality, water energy systems, monitoring and control, wastewater and recycling, planning, and management.
Publisher: Elsevier Applied Science
Issues Per Year: 6
UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited to UIUC affiliates)
ISWS; UIUC Grainger Library (1978 v.1 - present)

Environmental Science & Technology
Contains research papers on the characterization of natural and affected environments, environmental processes, environmental technology, modeling and measurement methods, critical reviews, environmental policy analyses, and environmental news and viewpoints occasionally about the subject of groundwater quality.
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Issues Per Year: 24
UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited to UIUC affiliates)

Ground Water
Contains focused research papers about groundwater, discussions of papers, book reviews, editorials, employment opportunities, and professional services.
Publisher: National Ground Water Association (NGWA) for the Association of Groundwater Scientists and Engineers
Issues Per Year: 6
UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited to UIUC affiliates)
ISWS; Illinois State Geological Survey (1963 v.1 - present)

Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation
Reports on all aspects of groundwater monitoring, including design, implementation, and maintenance of monitoring systems, as well as legislative and regulatory mandates, technological innovations, and studies of groundwater contamination.
Publisher: Ground Water Publishing Company
Issues Per Year: 12
Ground Water Review (1981 v.1 - 1992 v.12 n.2)
UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited to UIUC affiliates)
ISWS; Illinois State Geological Survey 1981 - present

Hydrogeology Journal
Official publication of the International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH) contains peer-reviewed papers in both theoretical and applied aspects of hydrogeologic science, including: theoretical and field studies ranging in scale from local areas and short time periods to regional or global problems and geologic time; techniques and innovative instrumentation in the laboratory and field; water-resource and related mineral-resource evaluations; reports of observed hydrogeologic phenomena; overviews of hydrogeologic systems of interest in various regions; philosophy of scientific methods in hydrogeology; interaction between populations and hydrogeologic systems; economics of hydrogeologic systems; and ramifications of hydrogeology on both environmental protection and optimal employment of natural resources.
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
Issues Per Year: 6
Applied Hydrogeology (1992 v.1 - 1994 v.2)
for abstracts/contents only see: UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited to UIUC affiliates) (1992 - present; includes separate author, subject and volume indexes)
ISWS; UIUC Geology Library (1992 v.1 - present)

Hydrological Sciences Journal
Contains research papers, book reviews and announcements on groundwater; the hydrological cycle; surface water; the physical, chemical and biological processes of snow and ice and their relationship to climate and geographical factors; erosion and sedimentation; hydrological aspects of use and management of water resources and their change under human influences, and water resource systems including planning, engineering, management, and economic aspects of applied hydrology.
Publisher: International Association of Hydrological Sciences (IAHS)
Issues Per Year: 6
Hydrological Sciences Bulletin (1971-1981);
Bulletin of the International Association of Scientific Hydrology (1956-1971)
UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited to UIUC affiliates) (2003-present)
ISWS; UIUC Geology Library (1956 v.1 - present)

JAWRA: Journal of the American Water Resources Association
Contains technical articles with results of current research, review papers, general interest reports, and discussions relating to all aspects of water.
Publisher: American Water Resources Association (AWRA)
Issues Per Year: 12
Water Resources Bulletin (1965-1996)
UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited to UIUC affiliates)
; UIUC Geology Library (1986 v.1 - present)

Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
An international journal "pertaining to the contamination of groundwater" with "emphasis on investigations of the physical, chemical and biological processes that influence the behaviour of organic and inorganic contaminants in both the unsaturated (vadose) and saturated zones." Scope includes: "experimental investigations of contaminant sorption, diffusion, transformation, volatilization and transport in the unsaturated and saturated zones; characterization of soil and aquifer properties but only as they influence contaminant behaviour; development and testing of mathematical models of contaminant behaviour; innovative techniques for restoration of contaminated sites; and development of new tools or techniques for monitoring the extent of soil and groundwater contamination."
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Issues Per Year: 4
UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited to UIUC affiliates)
; UIUC Geology Library (1965 v.1 - present)

JEQ: Journal of Environmental Quality
Contains research papers, short communications, and book reviews covering environmental issues such as groundwater, atmospheric pollutants and trace gases, bioremediation and ecosystem restoration, heavy metals, landscape and watershed processes, organic compounds, plant and environment interactions, surface water quality, vadose zone processes and chemical transport, waste management, and wetlands and aquatic processes.
Publisher: American Society of Agronomy, the Crop Science Society of America and the Soil Science Society of America
Issues Per Year: 6
UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited to UIUC affiliates)
ISWS; UIUC Agriculture Consumer and Environmental Sciences Library (ACES) (1972 v.1 - present)

Journal of Hydrology
Contains research papers and reviews in all subfields of hydrological sciences comprising physical, chemical, biogeochemical, stochastic, and systems aspects of surface and groundwater hydrology, hydrometeorology, and hydrogeology. Includes topics in related disciplines such as climatology, water resource systems, hydraulics, agrohydrology, geomorphology, soil science, instrumentation and remote sensing, and civil and environmental engineering.
Publisher: Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company
Issues Per Year: irregular
UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited to UIUC affiliates)
; UIUC Grainger Engineering Library (1963 v.1 - 1990 v.118); UIUC Geology Library (1963 v.1 - present)

Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management
Contains technical papers, editorials, and notes on planning and management of water resources. Papers examine social, economic, environmental, and administrative concerns relating to water use and conservation. Discusses developments in computer applications and values.
Publisher: American Society of Civil Engineers
Issues Per Year: 12
ASCE: Journal of the Hydraulics Division (1956-1982)
UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited to UIUC affiliates on a trial basis)
; UIUC Grainger Engineering Library (1983 v.109 - present)

Water Environment Research
Contains research papers, editorials, critical evaluations, and notes related to water quality and pollution control. Topics include hazardous wastes, groundwater and surface water, remediation and treatment systems, conservation and reuse, environmental risk and health, residuals management, waste minimization, and aquatic sciences.
Publisher: Water Environment Federation
Issues Per Year: 12

Research Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation (1989-1991)
Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation (1960-1989)
Sewage and Industrial Wastes (1950-1959)
Sewage Works Journal (1928-1949)
UIUC Electronic Journals (access limited ot UIUC affiliates)
ISWS; UIUC Grainger Engineering Library (1989 v.61 - present)

Water International
Contains technical papers on regional and national assessments of water resources, sustainable water management, water resources development, water use and conservation, water management institutions, water resources engineering, and analysis and techniques.
Publisher: International Resources Association
Issues Per Year: 4

Water Resources Research
Contains papers, reviews, technical notes, and data and analyses with an interdisciplinary approach to social and natural sciences of water, including scientific hydrology, physical, chemical and biological sciences, and social and policy sciences.
Publisher: American Geophysical Union
Issues Per Year: 12
for abstracts/contents of current issues see:
ISWS; UIUC Grainger Engineering Library (1990 v.26 - 1995 v.31); UIUC Geology (1965 v.1 - present)

Water Well Journal
Covers technical issues related to drilling and pump installation, rig maintenance, business management and professional development, well rehabilitation, water treatment, and more.
Publisher: National Ground Water Association
Issues Per Year: 12
ISWS; Illinois State Geological Survey (1981 v.35 - 1991 v.45); UIUC Grainger Engineering Library (1947 v.1 - 1976 v.39)


Cambridge Scientific Abstracts. Water Resources Abstracts Database.
"Provides summaries of the world's technical and scientific literature on water-related topics covering the characteristics, conservation, control, pollution, treatment, use and management of water resources. Abstracts are drawn from journals, books, conference proceedings, and technical reports in the physical and life sciences, as well as from engineering, legal and government publications. About 1000 journal titles are selectively indexed by Water Resources Abstracts. Until 1994, the database was produced by the United States Geological Survey, when it was generally known as Selected Water Resources Abstracts. Since that time, Water Resources Abstracts has been produced by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts, which broadened the scope by including more material published outside the U.S.A. Coverage: 1967 – current; updated monthly. Note: Water Resources Abstracts is a subfile of the larger database, Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management." (UIUC description)
Location (call#): UIUC Electronic Databases

Driscoll, Fletcher G. 1986. Groundwater and wells. St. Paul, MN: Johnson Division. 1089 p.
A comprehensive reference book for those involved in the development of groundwater resources. Provides a clear explanation of groundwater techniques, water well hydraulics, the collection and analysis of pumping test data, and monitoring well design and installation procedures. Also supplies necessary technical knowledge to locate, extract, treat, and protect groundwater, and describes economic development of groundwater resources in the widest range of hydrogeologic settings without damage to aquifers through overpumping or contamination. Very useful for engineers, water well contractors, hydrogeologists, environmentalists, government officials, and students.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 628.114D781g c.6)

Eaton, Andrew D., Lenore S. Clesceri, and Arnold E. Greenberg (ed.), 1999. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edition. New York; Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, the American Waterworks Association and the Water Environment Federation.
Contains efficient and uniform methods for examination of many types of samples encountered in the assessment and control of water quality and water pollution. Topic areas covered include physical and aggregate properties, metals, inorganic nonmetallic constituents, aggregate organic compounds, radioactivity, toxicity, microbiological examination, and biological examination.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 543.3 A512 1998)

Geraghty, James J., David W. Miller, Frits van der Leeden, and Fred L. Troise, 1973. Water atlas of the United States. Port Washington, NY: The Water Information Center. 122 plates.
Presents complex national water data in a readily understandable form with text descriptions accompanying each of 122 maps. All maps were modified and drawn on a similar base for ease of data comparison. Groundwater maps show major aquifers, narrow aquifers related to river valleys, coverage and scope of groundwater investigations, average temperature of shallow groundwater, groundwater use, groundwater laws, depth to saline groundwater, and hardness of groundwater.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 628.11 W324)

Heath, Ralph C., 1983. Basic ground-water hydrology. Denver, CO: U.S. Geological Survey. 84 p.
(USGS Water Supply Paper 2220)
Consists of 45 sections on basic elements of groundwater hydrology, arranged in order from basic aspects through methods used to determine aquifer yield to common problems in operation of groundwater supplies. For use by rural homeowners, managers of industrial and municipal water supplies, heads of water-regulatory agencies, hydrologists, well drillers, and others engaged in study and development of groundwater supplies.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 628.11 Un32w 2220)

Herschy, Reginald W. and Rhodes W. Fairbridge (ed.), 1998. Encyclopedia of hydrology and water resources. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 843 p.
Provides an overview of diverse topics, including groundwater, through a wide range of interrelated topics. Contains authoritative, summarized information that should be useful to the applied hydrologist and those in academia. Also a source of interest to planners, policy makers, regulators, and decision-makers concerned with water resources.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 551.4803 En56 1998)

Interagency Coordinating Committee on Groundwater, 1992. Questions & answers: Illinois ground water protection act. Springfield, IL: Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. 20 p.
Contains basic information on the status of Illinois groundwater quality, how the Illinois Groundwater Protection Act relates to other states, federal laws that deal with groundwater, resource information and needs assessment, the community wellhead survey, well drilling permits, potential sources and routes of contamination, underground storage tanks, pesticides, funding, and rules. Intended to answer questions from the public.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 628.16 I29wa IGPA)

Joint Editorial Board representing the American Public Health Association, the American Society of Civil Engineers, the American Waterworks Association and the Water Pollution Control Federation, 1969. Glossary: water and wastewater control engineering. 387 p.
Contains environmental engineering and groundwater terms.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 628.03 A512 1969)

Montgomery, John H. and Linda M. Welkom, 1990. Groundwater chemicals desk reference. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers. 640 p.
A broad and comprehensive reference source for use in the field. Contains information needed by those involved in groundwater protection and remediation. Useful to government agencies and environmental scientists for its physiochemical properties, exposure data, uses category, and analytical test methods.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 628.16 M766g)

Subsurface Water Glossary Working Group of the Groundwater Subcommittee of the Interagency Advisory Committee on Water Data, 1989. Subsurface-water flow and solute transport: federal glossary of selected terms. Reston, VA: U.S. Geological Survey, Office of Water Data Coordination. 38 p.
The terms defined encompass groundwater geology, hydraulics and chemistry, soil-water physics and chemistry, contaminant transport, unsaturated zone hydrology, chemistry and transport of solutes, and groundwater quality.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 557 U58)

van der Leeden, Frits, 1991. Geraghty and Miller's groundwater bibliography. Denver, CO: The Water Information Center. 507 p.
Contains over 5,600 references divided into a general section listing bibliographies, periodicals, and books, as well as a subject section including 31 hydrogeological topics with subdivisions. Intended to help those seeking information on management and protection of groundwater resources.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 016.628114 V26g 1991)

van der Leeden, Frits, 1974. Ground water: a selected bibliography. Port Washington, NY: Water Information Center. 146 p.
Over 1,750 key references have been grouped into 32 subject categories. Contains citations for articles and publications, including all the important "classic" papers through 1974.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 551.49 L484 2nd)

van der Leeden, Frits, Fred L. Troise, and David Keith Todd, 1990. The water encyclopedia. Chelsea, MI: Lewis Publishers. 808 p.
A good first source to try for various questions. Contains a full chapter on groundwater including resources in the United States, water wells, injection wells, pumping, subsidence, aquifer characteristics, soil moisture, springs, artificial recharge, geophysical logging, management, and contamination. Intended to serve the scientist and the general public as an important source of information about water and all its related aspects.
Location (call#): ISWS (REF 553.7 V217w)


Anderson, Mary P. and William W. Woessner, 1992. Applied groundwater modeling: simulation of flow and advective transport. Academic Press, San Diego, CA. 381 p.
A comprehensive reference to assist those wishing to develop groundwater modeling proficiency. Focuses on groundwater flow models and use of particle tracking models to simulate movement of solutes, usually contaminants. Requires some knowledge of basic principles of hydrogeology and theoretical aspects of groundwater modeling. Useful for advanced students, consultants, industry, and government agencies.
Location (call#): ISWS (551.49 A548a)

Batu, Vedat, 1998. Aquifer hydraulics: a comprehensive guide to hydrogeologic data analysis. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. 727 p.
Focuses on hydraulics of aquifers and determination of their hydrogeologic parameters based on field tests. Includes over 100 example problems and solutions. Intended for practitioners, undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, and instructors in related disciplines.
Location (call#): ISWS (551.49 B337)

Churchill, Pete and Ruth Patrick (ed.), 1987. Groundwater contamination: sources, effects and options to deal with the problem: proceedings of the Third National Water Conference held in Philadelphia, January 13 –15, 1987. Academy of Natural Sciences, the American Waterworks Association, the National Wildlife Federation and the Water Pollution Control Federation, Philadelphia, PA. 453 p.
Addresses questions about groundwater contamination from diverse points of view. Topics include contamination vs. health effects as basis for action, contaminant prediction tools, mitigation, remedial technology, groundwater classification, and contamination prevention options.
Location (call#): ISWS (628.168.3 N277)

D'Itri, Frank M. and Lois G. Wolfson, 1987. Rural groundwater contamination. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI. 416 p.
Focuses on groundwater contamination from agricultural sources. Also offers a general overview of causes, impacts, assessments, methods, health and risk implications of groundwater pollution, and necessary remedial action program studies. A useful information source for researchers and laypersons.
Location (call#): ISWS (Building 4);
UIUC City Planning Stacks (363.7394 R88)

Domenico, Patrick A. and Franklin W. Schwartz, 1990. Physical and chemical hydrogeology. Wiley, New York, NY. 506 p.
Intended for "geologists, practicing hydrogeologists and engineers, geochemists, and geophysicists interested in fluid dynamics," the book covers three sections of material, beginning with "preliminary information on the hydrologic cycle and the porosity and permeability of porous material" and covering 1) fluid, 2) energy and 3) mass transport in porous media. (A 1998 edition is also available.)
Location (call#): UIUC Geology Library (Q.551.46 D713p1990)

Feder, Paul A., 1993. A guidebook to groundwater: resources and education opportunities in the Great Lakes region. Great Lakes Commission, Ann Arbor, MI. 92 p.
Describes physical aspects of groundwater in the region, economic and environmental importance of groundwater to citizens, and management programs and priorities. Intended for the general public.
Location (call#): ISWS (553.79 G946)

Fetter, Charles Willard, 1988. Applied hydrogeology. Merrill Publishing Company, Columbus, OH. 592 p.
An introductory hydrogeology text for advanced undergraduates or graduates, and also a practical reference for working professionals. Covers water, evaporation and precipitation, runoff and stream flow, properties of aquifers, principles of groundwater flow, soil moisture and groundwater recharge, groundwater flow to wells, regional groundwater flow, geology of groundwater occurrence, water chemistry, water quality and groundwater contamination, groundwater development and management, field methods, and groundwater models.
Location (call#): UIUC Geology Library (551.4 F431A1988)

Freeze, R. Allan and John A. Cherry, 1979. Groundwater. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 604 p.
Provides broad, interdisciplinary coverage of groundwater topics, including physical properties, chemical properties, groundwater geology, flow nets, groundwater and the hydrologic cycle, chemical evolution of natural groundwater, groundwater resource evaluation, contamination, geotechnical problems, and groundwater and geologic processes.
Location (call#): ISWS (551.49 F857)

Ground water atlas of the United States, 1992-1997. U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA. 1 atlas in 14 parts, 59 x 46 cm.
Presents a comprehensive summary of the nation's groundwater resources and serves as a basic reference for locating and characterizing major aquifers. Includes an introductory chapter with an overview of groundwater conditions nationwide and discusses effects of human activities on water resources, including saltwater encroachments and land subsidence. Each section represents a geographical region of the United States.
Location (call#): ISWS (F. 557 U58ha 730A – N)

Illinois Groundwater Consortium. Research on agricultural chemicals in Illinois groundwater: status and future directions: proceedings of the Annual Conference. Carbondale, Illinois. 1st(1991) -10th(2000).
Focuses on contribution of flooding to soil and water contamination, ecosystem damage, nutrient, chemical, and pesticide transport, and understanding agricultural management practices. Useful for researchers and the public.
Location (call#): ISWS (551.491 I29)
Online 2001-2003 at:

Matthess, Georg , translated by John C. Harvey, 1982. The properties of groundwater. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. 406 p.
Introduces fundamental principles that describe geochemical mechanisms that control properties of groundwater, occurrence of various dissolved substances, and natural variations present in groundwater. Describes the relationship between these components and groundwater. Useful to scientists and public health experts.
Location (call#): ISWS (551.9 M436)

National Research Council Committee on Groundwater Quality Protection, 1986. Groundwater quality protection: state and local strategies. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 309 p.
Reviews several state and local groundwater protection programs, focusing on prevention of groundwater contamination with respect to scientific bases, performance over time, administrative requirements, and legal and economic frameworks. Identifies significant technical features that show progress and promise in providing protection of groundwater quality that can be used as practical models in developing and enhancing state and local groundwater protection programs.
Location (call#): ISWS (363.739.4 G882w)

Nielsen, David M. (ed.), 1991. Practical handbook of groundwater monitoring. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI. 717 p.
A technical handbook used by researchers and practitioners to investigate extent of environmental contamination of groundwater and to monitor progress of cleanup measures.
Location (call#): ISWS (628.161 P895)

Rowe, Garry W. and Sylvia J. Dulaney, 1991. Building and using a groundwater database. Lewis Publishers, Chelsea, MI. 218 p.
Introduces basic principles of groundwater database development. Requires some knowledge in fields of geology, hydrogeology, soil science, water chemistry, water well drilling, cartography, and computer science to understand development and use of this type of analysis tool.
Location (call#): ISWS (553.790285574 R878b)

Rumery, J. Kevin, Jack W. Keeley, Barbara Wilson, and John Wilson (ed.), 1993. In-situ bioremediation of contaminated subsurface media. Robert S. Kerr Environmental Research Laboratory, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, OK. 71 p.
Provides a detailed background of technologies available for in-situ bioremediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. Supplies a scientific understanding of processes involved with bioremediation of soil and groundwater. Defines these technologies with respect to circumstances of applicability and limitations. Intended for scientists, consultants, regulatory personnel, and others associated with restoration of soil and groundwater at hazardous waste sites.
Location (call#): ISWS (553.795 R936I)

Thomas, Harold E., 1951. The conservation of groundwater: a survey of the present groundwater situation in the U.S. McGraw Hill, New York, NY. 327 p.
Surveys natural conditions determining the occurrence of groundwater. Also describes history and effects of groundwater use throughout the United States. A classic source for researchers, students, and policy makers.
Location (call#): Illinois State Geological Survey Library (551.49 T36c)

Todd, David Keith, 1959. Groundwater hydrology. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY. 336 p.
Presents fundamentals of groundwater hydrology, including groundwater use, occurrence, movement, hydraulics, water wells, and groundwater levels. Also includes conservation methods for investigating groundwater by surface and subsurface procedures, artificial recharge, economic and legal considerations, and laboratory models and numerical analysis studies that have become valuable groundwater research tools.
Location (call#): Illinois State Geological Survey Library (551.49 T56g)
UIUC Geology Library (551.49 T56G1980) 1980 2nd edition.

Todd, David Keith and Daniel E. Orren McNulty. 1976. Polluted groundwater: a review of the significant literature. Water Information Center, Port Washington, NY. 179 p.
This selective literature review covers 595 sources that deal with human-caused groundwater pollution, including cases, occurrences, procedures for control, and methods for monitoring. Omits administrative regulations, legal reports and unpublished materials. Topics include urban pollution, industrial pollution, agricultural pollution, pollution from wells, saltwater and surface water, pollutants and effects, and evaluating pollution.
Location (call#): ISWS (628.168 T634)

Tolman, C.F., 1937. Groundwater. McGraw Hill, New York. 593 p.
This first general treatise of groundwater science covers the occurrence, motions, and activities of subsurface water and the hydrologic properties of water-bearing materials. Basic properties described are still applicable.
Location (call#): Illinois State Geological Survey Library (551.49 T586)

Travis, Curtis C. and Elizabeth L. Etnier (ed.). 1984. Groundwater pollution: environmental and legal problems. Westview Press, Boulder, CO. 149 p.
Based on a symposium held by the American Association for the Advancement of Science in Washington D.C., January 3 – 8, 1982. Highlights methodological and conceptual difficulties inherent in protecting the nation's groundwater supplies. Provides information on groundwater hydrology, nature and extent of groundwater pollution, and possible effects of exposure to contaminated drinking water. Provides insights into difficult legal issues involved in protecting groundwater quality.
Location (call#): Illinois Geological Survey Library (628.168 G918)

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, 1990. Handbook: Groundwater v. 1 – Groundwater and contamination, v. 2 – methodology. Washington, DC. EPA/625/6-90/016 2 vols.
Discusses measures to make reliable predictions about contamination response to corrective or preventative actions. Brings together available technology in a form convenient for groundwater personnel in the U.S. EPA and state and local governments on whom the agency ultimately depends for proper groundwater management. Chapters cover basic geology, classification of groundwater regions, the groundwater – surface water relationship, basic hyrdogeology, groundwater contamination, investigations, restoration, monitoring well design and construction, sampling, transport and fate of contaminants in the subsurface, groundwater tracers, introduction to aquifer test analysis, and computer models used in groundwater investigations.
Location (call#): ISWS (U. EPA 625 6-90 016a, b)

U.S. Geological Survey. Annual. Water resources data: Illinois. U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, [Denver, CO].
Contains data on discharge, streamflow, water quality, groundwater levels, and more. 1965 - present.
Location (call#): ISWS (628.11 Un32i year)

Walton, William C., 1970. Groundwater resource evaluation. McGraw Hill, New York, NY. 664 p.
Presents basic principles of groundwater resource evaluation and practical application of techniques to well and aquifer problems useful to engineers and hydrogeologists. Includes equations and methods used to quantitatively appraise hydrogeologic parameters affecting the water-yielding capacity of wells and aquifers to heavy pumping.
Location (call#): Illinois Geological Survey Library (551.49 W19g)

Wilson, James, 1982. Groundwater: a nontechnical guide. Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. 105 p.
Intended as a primer on groundwater. Corrects many misconceptions and provides a detailed look at how the nation's geological, geographical, and climatological diversity affect groundwater quantity and quality. Also discusses impact of human activities on groundwater.
Location (call#): Illinois Geological Survey Library (551.49 W69g)

Selected Articles

Some classic papers in hydrogeology, featuring papers from the Meinzer Award Canon
The Meinzer Award has been presented annually since 1965 by the Hydrogeology Division of the Geological Society of America in recognition of an outstanding paper or collection of papers. The award is named after Oscar E. Meinzer who is generally regarded as the "father of hydrogeology" in North America.

Except for Winter (1978), each paper listed below is authored or co-authored by a Meinzer Awardee. Papers marked with an asterisk are Meinzer Award papers. Copies of these papers are available in the ISWS Library.

Bredehoeft, J.D., and L.F. Konikow. 1992. Reply to comment, Advances in Water Resources, 15: 371-372.
Clarifies the terms "validation" and "verification," a discussion of history matching, support of postaudits and the need for professional judgment, and an example of two areas of "validation" problems: the nuclear waste and toxic waste communities. See also original article (Konikow & Bredehoeft) and comment (deMarsily, et al.).

Bredehoeft, J.D., S.S. Papadopulos, and H.H. Cooper, Jr. 1982. Groundwater: The Water-Budget Myth, Chapter 4 in Scientific Basis of Water-Resources Management, from the series Studies in Geophysics, Geophysics Study Committee, National Academy Press, 51-57.
"Water-resource scientists are concerned that some basic principles are being overlooked by water managers.... Perhaps the most common misconception in groundwater hydrology is that a water budget of an area determines the magnitude of possible groundwater development.... The laws governing the development of groundwater in Nevada as well as several other states are based on the idea that pumping within a groundwater basin shall not exceed the recharge" (Introduction). In conclusion, three points are made: 1) "Magnitude of development depends on hydrologic effects that you want to tolerate, ultimately or at any given time (which could be dictated by economics or other factors).... 2) The magnitude of sustained groundwater pumpage generally depends on how much of the natural discharge can be captured. 3) Steady state is reached only when pumping is balanced by capture ... and balance must be achieved by a change in discharge" (Conclusions).

*deMarsily, G., P. Combes, and P. Goblet. 1992. Comment on "Ground-water models cannot be validated," by L.F. Konikow & J.D. Bredehoeft, Advances in Water Resources, 15: 367-369.
Disagreeing with Konikow & Bredehoeft, this team feels that models are still valuable for assisting decision-making. "[T]he better the 'verification' of the model, the better the 'validation' of the model, and therefore, the better the decision.[W]e do not 'validate' our models, but ... we try to show that they are not 'invalidated' by the data!" (p. 369). See also reply to comment (Bredehoeft & Konikow).

Domenico, P.A., and V.V. Palciauskas. 1973. Theoretical analysis of forced convective heat transfer in regional ground-water flow, Geological Society of America Bulletin, 84: 3803-3814.
Examines the spatial redistribution of heat caused by moving groundwater in geologic basins"by solving the energy equation for the simultaneous transport of water by hydraulic gradients and heat by forced convection" (Abstract).

Freeze, R.A. 1975. A stochastic conceptual analysis of one-dimensional groundwater flow in non-uniform homogeneous media, Water Resources Research, 11(5): 725-741.
"The most realistic respresentation of a naturally occurring porous medium is a stochastic set of macroscopic elements in which the values of the three basic hydrogeologic parameters ... are defined by freqency distributions.... The results of this study throw into question the validity of the hidden assumption that underlies all deterministic groundwater modeling; namely, that it is possible to select a single value for each flow parameter in a homogeneous but non-uniform medium that is somehow representative and hence define [sic] an 'equivalent' uniform porous medium" (Abstract).

Garven, G., M.S. Appold, V.I. Toptygina, and T.J. Hazlett. 1999. Hydrogeologic modeling of the genesis of carbonate-hosted lead-zinc ores, Hydrogeology Journal, 7(1): 108-126.
Uses hydrogeological and geochemical theories and mathematical models to explain the mechanisms of the carbonate-hosted lead-zinc ore deposits in southeastern Missouri in North America and in the central midlands region of Ireland. Presents models as a theoretical basis for five observations that support four points in the conclusion.

*Gelhar, L.W. 1986. Stochastic subsurface hydrology from theory to applications, Water Resources Research 22(9): 135S-145S.
"[H]ow currently available techniques and results can be used to answer important questions about the large-scale behavior of naturally heterogeneous aquifers" (Abstract). "The summary of some key results of stochastic theory applied to subsurface flow demonstrates that simple and useful generic results can be obtained via spectral techniques which presume local stationarity" (p. 144S). "This stochastic approach has produced research results which establish a sound quantitative basis for predicting the large-scale behavior of subsurface flow systems" (ibid.).

James, E.R., M. Manga, T.P. Rose, and G.B. Hudson. 2000. The use of temperature and the isotopes of O, H, C, and noble gases to determine pattern and spatial extent of groundwater flow, Journal of Hydrology, 237: 100-112.
"Isotopic tracer and temperature measurements at large volume cold springs in the central Oregon Cascades are used to understand the pattern of groundwater flow. Standard oxygen and hydrogen isotope interpretations are used to determine the mean recharge elevation for springs. Carbon and helium isotopes are used to measure the component of dissolved magmatic gas in the spring waters. Inferences from isotopic measurements are compared with temperature measurements made at the springs to determine whether groundwater circulates to shallow or deep depths in the subsurface. Integrating the measurements of tracers derived at the surface, tracers derived from the subsurface, and temperature measurements can thus be used to derive a three[-]dimensional picture of groundwater flow" (Abstract).

*Konikow, L.F., and J.D. Bredehoeft. 1992. Ground-water models cannot be validated, Advances in Water Resources, 15: 75-83.
Because groundwater models are scientific hypotheses, they "cannot be proven or validated, but only tested and invalidated," though through testing they can be improved. "Case histories of model applications ... illustrate that calibration produces a nonunique solution and that validation, per se, is a futile objective. Although models are definitely valuable tools for analyzing ground-water systems, their predictive accuracy is limited. The terms validation and verification are misleading and their use in ground-water science should be abandoned in favor of more meaningful model-assessment descriptors" (Abstract). See also comment (deMarsily, et al.) and reply to comment (Bredehoeft & Konikow).

Lapham, W.W. 1989. Use of temperature profiles beneath streams to determine rates of vertical groundwater flow and vertical hydraulic conductivity, USGS Water Supply Paper 2337, 35 p.
"The use of temperature profiles beneath streams to determine rates of vertical ground-water flow and effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of sediments was evaluated at three field sites by use of a model that numerically solves the partial differential equation governing simultaneous vertical flow of fluid and heat in the Earth.... Application of the method at the three test sites demonstrates the feasibility of using the method to determine the rate of ground-water flow between a stream and underlying sediments and the effective vertical hydraulic conductivity of the sediments" (Abstract).

*Maxey, G.B. 1968. Hydrogeology of Desert Basins, Ground Water 6(5): 10-22.
Describes 1) "salient characteristics of arid basins (especially within the Great Basin)" and 2) "some methods we are using to delineate and define hydrologic systems" and 3) demonstrates "the importance of ground-water reservoirs in the over-all water resources picture, not only as sources of water supply but for storage of water, and for storage and disposal wastes" (Introduction). "A conceptual model of optimal ground-water reservoir development illustrates how to determine optimum use of storage and perennial yield, provided the use to which the water is to be put and the time of withdrawal are known" (Abstract).

Schwartz, F.W., and M. Ibaraki. 2001. Hydrogeological research: Beginning of the end or end of the beginning?Ground Water 39(4): 492-498.
"This paper uses citation data to assess whether articles published in key ground water journals such as Ground Water (GW) and Water Resources Research (WRR) are impacting research.... If one believes that citations are a measure of science impact, then there is cause for concern. Research is inefficient with much produced for little gain. On a typical industrial life-cycle curve, ground water research is likely ranked as mature and close to aging. At this stage, much work will have been completed and the number of truly impactful problems will have dwindled to just a few" (Abstract).

Stallman, R.W. 1965. Steady one-dimensional fluid flow in a semi-infinite porous medium with sinusoidal surface temperature, Journal of Geophysical Research, 70(12): 2821-2827.
"An equation is presented for computing infiltration rates from a study of temperatures observed near the land surface. The boundary conditions of heat and liquid movement assumed are (1) a sinusoidal temperature fluctuation of constant amplitude at the land surface and (2) a constant and uniform percolation rate normal to the land surface in a homogeneous medium. In natural mediums of average heat properties, percolation rates of the order of 2 cm/day or greater can be detected with ease by analyzing the temperature profile resulting from diurnal temperature fluctuations. Percolation rates of the order of 0.1 cm/day can be detected by analyzing the temperature profile resulting from annual temperature fluctuations at the land surface. With the most favorable conditions of low heat conductivity, large amplitude of temperature at the surface, and careful measurements of temperature, analysis of diurnal temperature fluctuations may yield accurate detection of velocity to a minimum of 0.3 cm/day" (Abstract).

*Tiedeman, C., and S.M. Gorelick. 1993. Analysis of uncertainty in optimal groundwater contaminant capture design, Water Resources Research 29(7): 2139-2153.
Presentation of a "three-dimensional groundwater management model ... for a shallow, unconfined sandy aquifer at a Superfund site at which a vinyl chloride plume is migrating toward Lake Michigan" (Abstract). The resulting calibrated model is used to evaluate the reliability of hydraulic contaminent designs.

Winter, T.C. 1978. Numerical simulation of steady state three-dimensional groundwater flow near lakes, Water Resources Research 14(2): 245-254.
"Numerical simulation of three-dimensional groundwater flow near lakes shows that the continuity of the boundary encompassing the local groundwater flow system associated with a lake is the key to understanding the interaction of a lake with the groundwater system. The continuity of the boundary can be determined by the presence of a stagnation zone coinciding with the side of the lake nearest the downgradient side of the groundwater system.... If the center point is downslope from this part of the littoral zone, the local flow system boundary tends to be weak or outseepage occurs. If the center point is upslope from this littoral zone, the stagnation zone tends to be stronger ... and outseepage is unlikely to occur" (Abstract).

Winter, T.C. 1999. Relations of streams, lakes, and wetlands to groundwater flow systems, Hydrogeology Journal, 7(1): 28-45.
"Surface-water bodies are integral parts of groundwater flow systems. Groundwater interacts with surface water in nearly all landscapes, ranging from small streams, lakes, and wetlands in headwater areas to major river valleys and seacoasts. Although it generally is assumed that topographically high areas are groundwater recharge areas and topographically low areas are groundwater discharge areas, this is true primarily for regional flow systems.... Hydrologic processes associated with the surface-water bodies themselves, such as seasonally high surface-water levels and evaporation and transpiration of groundwater from around the perimeter of surface-water bodies, are a major cause of the complex and seasonally dynamic groundwater flow fields associated with surface water. These processes have been documented at research sites in glacial, dune, coastal, mantled karst, and riverine terrains" (Abstract).


Geological Society of America, Hydrogeology Division.
The Hydrogeology Division of the Geological Society of America was founded: "to bring together scientists interested in hydrogeology [and to] facilitate the presentation and discussion of their problems and ideas; to promote research and the publication of results on hydrogeologic studies; cooperate with other Divisions and Sections of the Society and with other scientific organizations in fostering, aiding, furthering, and promoting research in hydrogeology; and to advise and assist the officers and committees of the Society in matters pertaining to hydrogeology." The site includes the Hydrogeologist Newsletter, the Birdsall-Dreiss Lectures, the Meinzer Award, other division websites and job listings.

The Groundwater Foundation.
This nonprofit organization informs the public about groundwater through programs and publications. A useful summary page on groundwater provides statistics related to our dependence on this natural resource and general information on groundwater protection, the hydrologic cycle, contamination concerns, wells, and a glossary of groundwater terms.

Illinois Environmental Protection Agency.
Biennial Comprehensive
Status and Self-Assessment Report. Groundwater Quality Protection Program.
The IEPA conducts a groundwater protection program with a mission of restoring, protecting and enhancing the state's groundwater as a natural and public resource. The program derives much of its program authority from the Illinois Groundwater Protection Act (IGPA) that emphasizes a prevention-oriented process.

International Association of Hydrogeologists (IAH).
"IAH is a scientific and educational organisation whose aims are to promote research into and understanding of the proper management and protection of groundwater for the common good throughout the world. IAH has over 3,500 members in 135 countries and welcomes all who support our objectives to join our Association." The site contains news in the field of hydrogeology, IAH conference information, IAH publications, general information about groundwater and hydrogeology, and links to other resources.

National Groundwater Association (NGWA).
This professional association website provides access to publications for members, information on upcoming conventions, job positions, press releases, related associations and organizations, consultants, drilling services, manufacturers, pump contractors, software, suppliers, and test kits. Also contains a special page for the general public with well information, groundwater facts and frequently asked questions, homeowner's checklist for private water supply, and organization contact numbers.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
Provides links to information on groundwater discharge, hydrogeology, protection, runoff and wells, in addition to A Citizen's Guide to Groundwater and A Groundwater Primer.

U.S. Geological Survey.
Provides useful information about groundwater resources of the nation and groundwater activities of the USGS. Provides contact information for state offices, information about programs, such as the USGS Ground-Water Resources Program, access to USGS publications, information about USGS groundwater techniques, and links to other groundwater information.

Last modified: January 2008

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